Semester 2, 2018


158 pages

52,500 words



Part 2 of the GAMSAT notes, this time focusing on the more extensive topics of Organic Chemistry and Biology - in this section continuing on from Part I, we will go through pertinent topics that will not only help for your GAMSAT preparation but also summarises crucial topics in other Unimelb subjects like BCMB20002, ANAT20006, and PHYS20008, as well as refresh your knowledge from BIOL10005 and CHEM10004/5/6!

I have used my extensive knowledge from my Biochemistry and Anatomical studies, so these notes focus on the simple gist of many important biological and chemical processes!

PART I and II of these notes cost less than $100 together, which is much cheaper than the $300-400 price tag of other GAMSAT media! I hope you can benefit from these notes, the topics covered in each section are:

Molecules and Molecular Structure, Orbitals and Bonding, How to Draw Molecular Compounds, Stoichiometry: Enantiomers, Diastereomers, R/S System of Naming Molecules, Fischer and Haworth Projections, Other Types of Isomers, Alkanes, Cyclic Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatic Molecules, Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives, Imines, Enamines, Acetals, Hemiacetals, Aldols, Acid Halides, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, Esters, Fats, Oils, Waxes, Triglycerides, Ethers, Phenols, Amines, Nitriles, Amino Acid to Polypeptides to Proteins, Carbohydrates (Glucose and its Epimers, Cyclic Hexoses - Furanoses), Lipids, Steroids, Nucleic Acids, Separation and Purification Techniques, 1HNMR, 13CNMR IR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Chromatography, Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Native Gel Electrophoresis), Spectroscopy

Plasma Membrane Structure and Function, Diffusion, Osmolarity of the Cell, Endo/Exocytosis, Cellular Components and Organelles, Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes, DNA Structure and Replication, Cell Cycle (Mitosis), Chromosome Structure, Cell Junctions, Microscopy Techniques, Viruses, Retroviruses, Prokaryote Structure and Binary Fission, Operons, Fungi, Scientific Method, DNA Transcription and RNA Translation, Role of Ribosomes, Amino Acid Code and Degeneracy, tRNA, rRNA, mRNA Maturation, Biosynthetic Pathways, Enzymes, Enzyme Kinetics, Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, Saturation Kinetics, Regulation of Enzyme Activity, Metabolism, Glycolysis under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions, Citric Acid (TCA/Krebs) Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Electron Transport Chain, ATP Production and Output, Neural Tissues and Cells, Membrane Potentials, Action Potentials, Contractile Muscle Cells, Mechanism of Contraction, Actin and Myosin, Type I and Type II Muscle Fibres, Epithelial Cells and Tissues, Loose Connective Tissue, Dense Connective Tissue, Cartilage, Bone, Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems, Autonomic and Somatic Divisions of the Nervous System, Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous Systems, Brain Anatomy, Vertebral Column Anatomy, Reflexes, Sensory Systems - 5 Senses and their Mechanisms, Eye Structure and Function, Ear Structure and Function, Vision Defects, Endocrine System (Pituitary Hormones, Adrenocortical Hormones, Thyroid, Pancreatic, and Kidney Hormones), Negative and Positive Feedback Loops of Homeostasis, Heart Anatomy, Circulatory System, Blood Vessels and their Structure, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, Lymphatic System, Composition of Blood, Haemoglobin Structure and Affinity under Varying Conditions, Gas Exchange in the Capillaries, Immune System Cells and Responses, Immune System Tissues (spleen and lymph nodes), Digestive System, Oral Cavity, Oesophagus, Stomach Anatomy and Digestive Responses, Liver, Pancreas, Small and Large Intestines, Kidney Structure, Nephron Structure and Function, Regulation of Salt and Water, Bladder Structure and Function, Muscle Structure and Function, Skeletal System, Bone Development and Structure, Joints, Cartilage, Appendicular and Axial Skeleton, Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract, Breathing Mechanism and Control, Gas Exchange in the Lungs, Carbonic Acid Buffer, Respiratory Collapse, Integumental System, Skin Structure and Appendages, Organs of Sexual Reproduction, Meiosis I and II in the Male and Female Gonads, Menstrual Cycle and Phases, Embryogenesis from Fertilisation to Neuralation, Differentiation of Cells, The Placenta and its Function, XX and XY Chromosomes, Genetics, Blood Types, Mendelian Genetics, Alleles and Genes, Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses, Population Genetics and the Hardy-Weinberg Law, Back and Test Crosses, Genetic Variation and Heredity, Pedigree Charts and Mitochondrial DNA, DNA Recombination and Vectors, Blotting Techniques, Natural Selection and its Forms, Speciation, Genetic Drift, Origins of Life, Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, Evolutionary Patterns and Macro-Evolution, Eukaryotic Evolution, the Modern Kingdom-Domain Classification System