This is a concise version of the lecture notes answering the learning objectives, these notes were used for the written exam. The learning objectives answered are as follows:
-the histology of epithelia and classify the different subtypes: simple, stratified or pseudostratified; squamous, cuboidal, columnar or transitional.
-the histology of loose, irregular and dense connective tissue.
-the histology of smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle.
-the histology of hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage.
-the histological organisation of compact bone and trabecular bone.
-the histology of adipose tissue.
-the functions of and describe the differences between and the cell types of, the four primary tissue classes (muscle, connective, nervous, epithelia)
-the histology of the heart wall
-the structure, arrangement and function of vessel walls
-the differences between arteries/arterioles, veins/venules and lymphatic vessels.
-the role of blood & lymphatic vessels in the circulatory system.
-the role of each lymphoid organ (and its variable components) in the system.
-key histological features of each lymphoid organ.
and describe the cells of the respiratory epithelium.
-Distinguish the difference between a bronchus, bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct and alveolar sac.
-the functions of type I and type II pneumocytes (alveolar cells).
-the two separate blood supplies to the lungs and understand their functions.
-the epithelial differences between the internal and external lip.
-the muscles of the lip and tongue and recall the nerves that innervate them.
-the types of tongue papillae and understand their differences.
-the different compositions of the salivary glands and their parasympathetic innervation.
-the changes in epithelium along the length of a salivon.
-the four characteristic layers of the GIT throughout its length.
-Understand how the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa of each organ of the GIT is specialised.
-the functions of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
-the dual blood supply of the liver.
-how to differentiate the pancreas from a salivary gland.
and describe the structural & functional specialisations of each gland.
-the structural and functional relationship of the hypothalamus & the hypophysis.
-the embryological development of the hypophysis and how it relates to the structure & function of the mature gland.
-Understand the structure and important function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.
-Define and describe a nephron and a renal corpuscle. -Identify and understand the general functions of the macula densa, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, vasa recta, distal convoluted tubule & collecting ducts.
-the blood supply to the kidney, nephron.
-the structure and function of the ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
-the gross structure of the testis.
-between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
-the main functions of sustentocytes
-the main functions of interstitial endocrine
-the hormonal control of spermatogenesis.
-the ducts involved in the passage of sperm.
-the accessory sex glands and know their role.
-structural features distinguishing the stages of follicular development
-what occurs during the follicular phase and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle.
-what occurs during the proliferative phase and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle.
-the structure of the uterine tube, cervix and vagina, and non-lactating breast.


Semester 2, 2018

9 pages

3,658 words



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February 2018