Semester 2, 2016

Organic chem notes mark:92 - nomenclature, reactions, hydrocarbons

46 pages

46 words



Organic chem - nomenclature, reactions, hydrocarbons

My CHEM1021 mark: 92

Organic chemical nomenclature:

The importance of carbon
Naming straight chain alkanes
Alkenes and alkynes
Information from molecular formulae
Functional groups
General principles for naming organic compounds

Organic reactions and mechanisms:

Classes of reactions
Mechanisms in organic chemistry
Electron movement in reactions
Curly arrows
Radical or one-electron processes
Ionic (polar) or two-electron processes
Ionic mechanisms: principles
Curly arrows: rights and wrongs

Chemistry of hydrocarbons:

Aliphatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons: chemistry and physical properties
Molecular shape
Reactions of alkanes - combustion
Halogenation of methane: a substitution reaction
Free radicals
Radical reactions have three stages
Step 1: Free radical initiation
Step 2: Propagation
Other halogens
Termination steps
Selectivity in free radical chlorinations
Two other solutions
Other alkanes
Free radical stability
Cases where there is more than one type C–H bond
E and Z geometry in alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
The hydrogenation reaction
But why the cis product?
Electrophilic additions
How is a reagent like HBr electrophilic?
Mechanism of addition of hydrogen halides
Mechanism of addition of water: the need for a catalyst
Non-symmetrical alkenes
Markovnikov’s rule (1869)
Benzylic carbocations
More polar reactions of alkenes: addition of halogens
A classical test for unsaturation
The addition occurs with anti stereochemistry
Polarisation of Br2 and Cl2
Formation of the bromonium (or chloronium) ion
The second step – anti attack
Synthetic uses for dihalides
Addition of X–X in water
For asymmetrical alkenes
Addition of H2O: hydroboronation
Making alkenes: elimination reactions
Elimination reactions
Regioselectivity in eliminations
Cis or trans?
Oxidation of alkenes